The present work is designed mainly for Students at our Universities and Public Schools, and for such as are preparing for the Indian Civil Service or other advanced Examinations. The author hopes, however, that it may also be acceptable to some of those who, without being professed scholars, are yet interested in the grand literature of Rome, or who wish to refresh their memory on a subject that perhaps engrossed their early attention, but which the many calls of advancing life have made it difficult to pursue.
All who intend to undertake a thorough study of the subject will turn to Teuffel's admirable History, without which many chapters in the present work could not have attained completeness; but the rigid severity of that exhaustive treatise makes it fitter for a book of reference for scholars than for general reading even among students. The author, therefore, trusts he may be pardoned for approaching the History of Roman Literature from a more purely literary point of view, though at the same time without sacrificing those minute and accurate details without which criticism loses half its value. The continual references to Teuffel's work, excellently translated by Dr. W. Wagner, will bear sufficient testimony to the estimation in which the author holds it, and the obligations which he here desires to acknowledge.
He also begs to express his thanks to Mr. John Wordsworth, of B. N. C., Oxford, for many kind suggestions, as well as for courteous permission to make use of his Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin ; to Mr. H. A. Redpath, of Queen's College, Oxford, for much valuable assistance in correction of the proofs, preparation of the index, and collation of references, and to his brother, Mr. W. H. G. Cruttwell, for verifying citations from the post-Augustan poets.
To enumerate all the sources to which the present Manual is indebted would occupy too much space here, but a few of the more important may be mentioned. Among German writers, Bernhardy and Ritter—among French, Boissier, Champagny, Diderot, and Nisard—have been chiefly used. Among English scholars, the works of Dunlop, Conington, Ellis, and Munro, have been consulted, and also the History of Roman Literature, reprinted from the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, a work to which frequent reference is made, and which, in fact, suggested the preparation of the present volume.
It is hoped that the Chronological Tables, as well as the list of Editions recommended for use, and the Series of Test Questions appended, will materially assist the Student.
Roman and Greek Literature have their periods of study—Influence of each —Exactness of Latin language—Greek origin of Latin literature—Its three great periods: (1) The Ante-Classical Period; (2) The Golden Age; (3) The Decline.
FROM LIVIUS ANDRONICUS TO SULLA (240-80 B.C.).
On the Earliest Remains of the Latin Language.
Early inhabitants of Italy—Italic dialects—Latin—Latin alphabet—Later innovations—Pronunciation—Spelling—Early Monuments—Song of Fratres Arvales—Salian Hymn—Law of Romulus—Laws of Twelve Tables—Treaty between Rome and Carthage—Columna Rastrata —Epitaphs of the Scipios— Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus —Break-up of the language.
APPENDIX.—Examples of late corrupted dialects
On the Beginnings of Roman Literature.
The Latin character—Romans a practical people—Their religion unromantic —Primitive culture of Latium—Germs of drama and epos—No early historians—Early speeches—Ballad literature—No early Roman epos—Poets despised—Fescenninae—Saturae—Mime or Planipes—Atellanae- Saturnian metre—Early interest in politics and law as giving the germs of oratory and jurisprudence.
The Introduction of Greek Literature—Livius and Naevius (240-204 B.C.).
Introduction of Greek literature to Rome—Its first translators—Livius Andronicus—His translation of the Odyssey, Tragedies, &c.—Cn. Naevius—Inventor of Praetextae—Style—A politician—Writer of the first national epic poem—His exile and death—Cicero's opinion of him— His epitaph.
Roman Comedy—Plautus to Turpilius (254-103 B.C.).
The Roman theatre—Plan of construction—Comedy—Related to Athenian Middle and New Comedy—Plautus—His plays—Their plots and style— Palliatae and Togatae—His metres—Caecilius—Admires Terence— Terence—His intimate friends—His style—Use of contamination—Lesser comedians.
Roman Tragedy: Ennius—Accius (233-94 B.C.).
Contrast between Greek and Roman tragedy—Oratorical form of Latin tragedy—Ennius—The father of Roman poetry—His humamitas —Relations with Scipio—A follower of Pythagoras—His tragedies—Pacuvius—Painter and tragedian—Cicero's criticism of his Niptra—His epitaph—L. Accius —The last tragic writer—A reformer of spelling.
APPENDIX.—On some fragments of Sueius or Suevius.
Epic Poetry: Ennius—Furius (200-100 B.C.).
Naevius and Ennius—Olympic deities and heroes of Roman story—Hexameter of Ennius—Its treatment—Matius—Hostius—Furius.
The Early History of Satire: Ennius to Lucilius (200-103 B.C.).
Roman satire a native growth—Origin of word “Saturae”—It is didactic—Not necessarily poetical in form—Ennius—Pacuvius—Lucilius— The objects of his attack—His popularity—His humility—His style and language.
The Minor Departments of Poetry—The Atellanae (Pomponius and Novius, circ. 90 B.C.) and the Epigram (Ennius—Callus, 100 B. C.).
Atellanae—Oscan in origin—Novius—Pomponius—Mummius—Epigrammatists— Catulus—Porcius Licinius—Pompilius—Valerius Aedituus.
Prose Literature—History. Fabius Pictor—Macer (210-80 B.C.).
Early records—Annales, Libri Lintei, Commentarii, &c.—Narrow view of history—Fabius—Cincius Alimentus—Cato—Creator of Latin prose—His orations—His Origines—His treatise on agriculture—His miscellaneous writings—Catonis dicta —Calpurnius Piso—Sempronius Asellio—Claudius Quadrigarius Valerius Antias—Licinius Macer.
APPENDIX.—On the Annales Pontificum.
The History of Oratory before Cicero.
Comparison of English, Greek, and Roman oratory—Appius-Cornelius Cethegus—Cato—Laelius—The younger Scipio—Galba—Carbo—The Gracchi— Self-praise of ancient orators—Aemilius Scaurus—Rutilius—Catulus—A violent death often the fate of a Roman orator—M. Antonius—Crassus—The Roman law-courts—Bribery and corruption prevalent in them—Feelings and prejudices appealed to—Cotta and Sulpicius—Carbo the younger— Hortensius—His friendship for Cicero—Asiatic and Attic styles.
Other kinds of Prose Literature: Grammar, Rhetoric, and Philosophy (147-63 B.C.).
Legal writers—P. Mucius Scaevola—Q. Mucius Scaevola—Rhetoric— Plotius Gallus—Cornificius—Grammatical science—Aelius Stilo— Philosophy—Amafinius—Rabirius—Relation of philosophy to religion.
THE GOLDEN AGE. FROM THE CONSULSHIP OF CICERO TO THE DEATH OF AUGUSTUS (63 B.C.-l4 A.D.).
THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD.
The two Divisions of this culminating period—Classical authors—Varro —His life, his character, his encyclopaedic mind—His Menippean Satires—Logistorici-Antiquities Divine and Human—Imagines—De Lingua Latina—De Re Rustica.
APPENDIX.—Note I. The Menippean Satires of Varro,
“ II. The Logistorici,
“ III. Fragments of Atacinus,
“ IV. The Jurists, Critics, and Grammarians of less note.
Oratory and Philosophy—Cicero (106-43 B.C.).
Cicero—His life—Pro Roscio—In Verrem—Pro Cluentio—Pro lege Manilia—Pro Rabirio—Cicero and Clodius—His exile—Pro Milone—His Philippics—Criticism of his oratory—Analysis of Pro Milone—His Philosophy, moral and political—On the existence of God and the human soul—List of his philosophical works—His rhetorical works—His letters— His contemporaries and successors.
APPENDIX.—Poetry of M. and Q. Cicero.
Historical and Biographical Composition—Caesar—Nepos—Sallust.
Roman view of history—Caesar's Commentaries—Trustworthiness of his statements—His style—A. Hirtius—Other writers of commentaries—Caesar's oratorical and scientific position—Cornelius Nepos—C. Sallustius Crispus—Tubero.
APPENDIX.—On the Acta Diurna and Acta Senatus.
The History of Poetry to the Close of the Republic—Rise of Alexandrinism—Lucretius—-Catullus.
The Drama—J. Caesar Strabo—The Mimae—D. Laberius—Publilius Syrus—Matius—Pantomimi—Actors—The poetry of Cicero and Caesar— Alexandria and its writers—Aratus—Callimachus—Apollonius Rhodius— Euphorion—Lucretius—His philosophical opinions and style—Bibaculus— Varro Atacinus—Calvus—Catullus—Lesbia.
APPENDIX.—Note I. On the Use of Alliteration in Latin Poetry,
“ II. Some additional details on the History of the Mimus,
“ III. Fragments of Valerius Soranus.
THE AUGUSTAN EPOCH (42 B.C.-l4 A.D.).
Common features of the Augustan authors—Augustus's relation to them —Maecenas—The Apotheosis of the emperor—Rhetoricians not orators— Historians—Jurists—Poets—Messala—Varius—Anser—Macer.
Virgil (70-19 B.C.)
Virgil—His earliest verses—His life and character—The minor poems —The Eclogues—The Georgics—Virgil's love of Nature—His aptitude for epic poetry—The scope of the Aeneid —The Aeneid a religious poem —Its relation to preceding poetry.
APPENDIX.—Note I. Imitations of Virgil in Propertius, Ovid, and
“ II. On the shortening of final o in Latin poetry,
“ III. On parallelism in Virgil's poetry,
“ IV. On the Legends connected with Virgil.
Horace (65-8 B.C.).
Horace—His life—The dates of his works—Two aspects: a lyric poet and a man of the world—His Odes and Epodes—His patriotic odes—Excellences of the odes—The Satires and Epistles—Horace as a moralist—The Ars Poetica—Horace's literary criticism—Lesser poets.
The Elegiac Poets—Gratius—Manilius.
Roman elegy—Cornelius Callus—Domitius Marsus—Tibullus—Propertius— Ovid—His life—The Art of Love —His exile—Doubtful and spurious poems —Lesser erotic and epic poets—Gratius—Manilius.
Prose Writers of the Augustan Age.
Oratory Neglected—Declamation takes its place—Porcius Latro—Annaeus Seneca—History—Livy—Opportune appearance of his work—Criticism of his method—Pompeius Trogus—Vitruvius—Grammarians—Fenestella—Verrius Flaccus—Hyginus—Law and philosophy.
APPENDIX.—Note I. A Suasoria translated from Seneca,
“ II. Some Observations on the Theory of Rhetoric, from
Quintilian, Book III.
THE DECLINE. FROM THE ACCESSION OF TIBERIUS TO THE DEATH OF M. AURELIUS, A.D. 14-180.
The Age of Tiberius (14-37 A.D.).
Sudden collapse of letters—Cause of this—Tiberius—Changed position of literature—Vellius Paterculus—Valerius Maximus—Celsus—Remmius Palaemon—Germanicus—Phaedrus—Pomponius Secundus the tragedian.
The Reigns of Caligula, Claudius, and Nero (37-68 A.D.).
The Neronian period an epoch—Peculiar characteristics of its writers —Literary pretensions of Caligula—of Claudius—of Nero—Poem on Calpurnius Piso—Relation of philosophy to life—Cornutus—Persius—Lucan —Criticism of the Pharsalia —Eclogues of Calpurnius—The poem on Etna— Tragedies of Seneca—The apokolokuntosis.
The Reigns of Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.
2. Prose Writers—Seneca.
His importance—Life and writings—Influence of his exile—Relations with Nero—His death—Is he a Stoic?—Gradual convergence of the different schools of thought—Seneca a teacher more than anything else—His conception of philosophy—Supposed connection with Christianity—Estimate of his character and style.
The Reigns of Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.
3. Other Prose Writers.
Domitius Corbulo—Quintus Curtius—Columella—Pomponius Mela— Valerius Protius—Petronius Arbiter—Account of his extant fragments.
APPENDIX.—Note I. The Testamentum Porcelli,
“ II. On the MS. of Petronius.
The Reigns of the Flavian Emperors (69-96 A.D.).
1. Prose Writers.
A new literary epoch—Marked by common characteristics—Decay of national genius—Pliny the elder—Account of his death translated from the younger Pliny—His studious habits—The Natural History—Its character and value—Quintilian—Account of his book de Institutione Oratoria— Frontinus—A valuable and accurate writer—Grammatical studies.
APPENDIX.—Quintilian's Criticism on the Roman Authors.
The Reigns of Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian (69-96 A.D.).
Reduced scope of poetry—Poetry the most dependent on external conditions of any form of written literature—Valerius Flaccus—Silius—His death as described by Pliny—His poem—The elder Statius—Statius—An extempore poet—His public recitations—The Silvae—The Thebaid and Achilleid —His similes—Arruntius Stella—Martial—His death as recounted by Pliny —The epigram—Other poets.
APPENDIX.—On the Similes of Virgil, Lucan, and Statius.
The Reigns of Nerva and Trajan (96-117 A.D.).
Pliny the younger—His oratory—His correspondence—Letter to Trajan —Velius Longus—Hyginus—Balbus—Flaccus—Juvenal—His life—A finished declaimer—His character—His political views—Style—Tacitus—Dialogue on eloquence—Agricola— Germania—Histories—Annals —Intended work on Augustus's reign—Style.
The Reigns of Hadrian and the Antonines (117-180 A.D.).
Era of African Latinity—Differs from the Silver Age—Hadrian's poetry —Suetonius—His life—List of writings—Lives of the Caesars—His account of Nero's death—Florus—Salvius Julianus and Sextus Pomponius—Fronto— His relations with Aurelius—List of his works—Gellius—Gaius—Poems of the period—Pervigilium Veneris —Apuleius—De Magia—Metamorphoses or Golden Ass—Cupid and Psyche—His philosophical works.
State of Philosophical and Religious Thought during the Period of the Antonines—Conclusion.
Greek eloquence revives in the Sophists—Itinerant rhetors—Cynic preachers of virtue—The better class of popular philosophers—Dio Chrysostom—Union of philosophy and rhetoric—Greek now the language of general literature—Reconciliation of philosophy with religion—The Platonist school—Apuleius—Doctrine of daemons—Decline of thought— General review of the main features of Roman literature-Conclusion.
LIST OF EDITIONS RECOMMENDED
QUESTIONS OR SUBJECTS FOR ESSAYS, &c.