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APPENDIX.

A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF ROMAN LITERATURE, FROM LIVIUS TO THE DEATH OF M. AURELIUS. [1]

B.C. 

240 Livius begins to exhibit. 
239 Ennius born. 
235 Naevius begins to exhibit. 
234 Cato born. 
225 Fabius Pictor served in the Gallic War. 
219 Pacuvius born. 
218 Cincius Alimentus described the passage of Hannibal into Italy. 
217 Cato begins to be known. 
216 Fabius Pictor sent as ambassador to Delphi. 
207 The poem on the victory of Sena entrusted to Livius. 
204 Cato quaestor; brings Ennius to Rome. 
201 Naevius dies (?). 
191 Cato military tribune. 
190 Cincius still writes. 
189 Ennius goes with Fulvius into Aetolia. 
185 Terence born. [2] 
184 Cato censor. Plautus dies. 
179 Caecilius flourished. 
173 Ennius wrote the twelfth book of the Annals. 
170 Accius born. 
169 Ennius dies. Cato's speech pro lege Voconia. 
168 Caecilius dies. 
166 Terence's Andria. 
165 Terence's Hecyra. 
163 Terence's Hautontimorumenos. 
161 Terence's Eunuchus and Phormio. 
160 Terence's Adelphoe. 
159 Terence dies. 
154 Pacuvius flourished. 
151 Albinus, the consul, writes history (Gell. xi. 8). 
150 Cato finishes the Origines. 
149 Cato, aged 85, accuses Galba. Dies in the same year. C. Calpurnius 
    Piso Frugi, the historian. 
148 Lucilius born. 
146 Cassius Hemina flourished. C. Fannius, the historian, serves at 
    Carthage. 
142 Antonius, the orator, born. 
140 Crassus, the orator, born. Accius, aged 30, Pacuvius, aged 80, exhibit 
    together. 
134 Sempronius Asellio served at Numantia. Lucilius begins to write. 
123 Caelius Antipater flourished. 
119 Crassus accuses Carbo. 
116 Varro born. 
115 Hortensius born. 
111 Crassus and Scaevola quaestors. [3] 
109 Atticus born. 
107 Crassus tribune. 
106 Cicero born. 
103 The Tereus of Accius. Death of Turpilius. 
102 Furius Bibaculus born at Cremona. 
100 Aelius Stilo. 
 98 Antonius defends Aquillius. 
 95 First public appearance of Hortensius. Lucretius born (?). 
 92 Crassus censor. Opilius teaches rhetoric. 
 91 Crassus dies. Pomponius flourished. 
 90 Scaurus flourished. 
 89 Cicero serves under the consul Pompeius. 
 88 Cicero hears Philo and Molo at Rome. Rutilius resident at Mitylene. 
    Plotius Gallus first Latin teacher of Rhetoric. 
 87 Antonius slain. Sisenna the historian. Catullus born (?). 
 86 Sallust born. 
 82 Varro of Atax born. Calvus born. 
 81 Cicero pro Quinctio. Valerius Cato Grammaticus. Otacilius, 
    first freedman who attempts history. 
 80 Pro Roscio. 
 79 Cicero at Athens; hears Antiochus and Zeno. 
 78 Cicero hears Molo at Rhodes. 
 77 Cicero returns to Rome. 
 76 Asinius Pollio born (?). 
 75 Cicero quaestor in Sicily. 
 74 Cicero again in Rome. 
 70 Divinatio and Actio I. in Verrem. Virgil born. 
 69 Cicero aedile. 
 67 Varro wins a naval crown under Pompey in the Piratic War (Plin. 
    N. H. xvi. 4). 
 66 Cicero praetor. Pro lege Manilia. Pro Cluentio. M. Antonius 
    Gnipho flourished. 
 65 Pro Cornelia. Horace born. 
 64 In toga candida. 
 63 Consular orations of Cicero. Pro Murena. 
 62 Pro P. Sulla. 
 61 Annaeus Seneca born. 
 59 Livy born(?). Aelius Tubero with Cicero in Asia. Pro A. Thermo. 
    Pro L. Flacco.
 
 58 Cicero goes into exile. 
 57 Cicero recalled. Calidius a good speaker. 
 56 Pro Sextio. In Vatinium. De Provinciis Consularibus. 
 55 In Calpurnium Pisonem. De Oratore. Virgil assumes the toga 
    virilis
. 
 54 Pro Vatinio. Pro Scauro. De Republica. 
 52 Pro Milone. Lucretius dies(?). [4] 
 51 Cicero proconsul in Cilicia. 
 50 Death of Hortensius. Sallust expelled from the senate. 
 49 Cicero at Rome. Varro lieutenant of Pompey in Spain. 
 48 Lenaeus satirizes Sallust. Cicero in Italy. 
 47 Cicero at Brundisium. Hyginus brought to Rome by Caesar. Catullus 
    still living (C. 52). 
 46 The Brutus written. Calvus dies. Sallust praetor. Pro 
    Marcello. Pro Ligario.
 
 45 Cicero's Orator. Pro Deiolaro. 
 44 The first four Philippics. Death of Caesar. 
 43 The later Philippics. Death of Cicero. Birth of Ovid. 
 42 Horace at Philippi. 
 40 Cornelius Nepos flourished. Perhaps Hor. Sat. i. 2. Epod. xiii. 
 39 Ateius Philologus born at Athens. Perhaps Virg. Ecl. vi. viii. 
    Hor. Od. ii. 7. Epod iv. 
 38 Perhaps Ecl. vii. Hor. Sat. i. 3. 
 37 Varro (aet. 80) writes de Re Rustica. Perh. Ecl. x. Sat. i. 5 
    and 6. Epod. v. 
 36 Cornelius Severus(?) Hor. Sat. i. 8, 
 35 Bavius dies. Hor. Sat. i. 4, 9, 10. 
 34 Sallust dies. Sat. ii. 2. Epod. iii. 
 33 Sat. ii. 3. Epod. xi. xiv. 
 32 Atticus dies. Sat. ii. 4, 5. Epod. vii. 
 31 Messala consul. Sat. ii. 6. Epod. i. and ix. 
 30 Gallus made praefect of Egypt. Cassius Severus dies. Tibullus El. i. 
    3. The Georgics published. Hor. Sat. ii. 7, 8, and perhaps 1, 
    Epod ii. 
 29 Livy writing his first book. Propertius I. 6. 
 28 Varro dies. 
 27 Od. i. 35. Vitruvius writing his work. 
 26 Gallus dies (aet. 40). Second book of Propertius published (?). 
    [5] 
 25 Livy's first book completed before this year. Hor. Od. ii. 4. 
 24 Quintil. Varus dies (= the poet of Cremona, mentioned in the ninth 
    Eclogue [?]). 
 23 The first three books of the Odes published. 
 22 Marcellus dies. Virgil reads the sixth Aeneid to Augustus and Livia. 
    Third book of Propertius (?). 
 21 Hor. writes Ep. i. 20 (aet. 44). 
 20 First book of Epistles. 
 19 Virgil dies at Brundisium. His epitaph: 

      “Mantua me genuit: Calabri rapuere: tenet nunc 
      Parthenope: cecini pascua rura duces.” 

    Tibullus dies. Domitius Marsus writes. 
 18 Livy working at his fifty-ninth book. 
 17 Porcius Latro. The Carmen Saeculare. Varius and Tucca edit the 
    Aeneid. 
 16 Aemilius Macer of Verona dies. Od. iv. 9, to Lollius. 
 15 Death of Propertius. Victories of Drusus. Od. iv. 4. 
 14 The fourth book of the Odes(?). 
 13 Cestius of Smyrna teaches rhetoric. 
 12 Death of Agrippa. 
 11 The Epistle to Augustus (Ep. ii. 1). 
 10 Passienus and Hyginus Polyhistor. 
  9 Ovid's Amores. 
  8 Death of Horace. 
  7 Birth of Seneca (?). 
  6 Albucius Silo a professor of rhetoric. 
  5 Tiro, Cicero's freedman, dies (aet. 100). 
  4 Porcius Latro commits suicide. Ovid now in his fortieth year. 
  2 Ovid's Art of Love. 

A.D. 
  1 The Remedium Amoris. 
  2 Velleius Paterculus serves under C. Caesar. 
  4 Pollio dies. Velleius serves with Tiberius in Germany. 
  7 Velleius quaestor. 
  8 Verrius Flaccus, the grammarian, flourished. Ovid banished to Tomi, in 
    December (Tr. 1, 10, 3). 

      “Aut hanc me gelidi tremerem cum mense Decembris 
      Scribentem mediis Adria vidita quis.
 

  9 The Ibis of Ovid. 
 11 Death of Messala. [6] 
 12 The Tristia finished. 
 13 The Epistles from Pontus were being written. 
 14 Death of Augustus. Velleius praetor. 
 18 Death of Ovid at 60; of Livy at 76. Valerius Maximus accompanied Sex. 
    Pompeius to Asia. 
 19 The elder Seneca writes his “recollections.” 
 24 Cassius Severus in exile. Pliny the elder born (?). 
 25 Death of Cremutius Cordus. Votienus banished. 
 26 Haterius flourished. 
 30 Asinius Gallus imprisoned. 
 31 Valerius Maximus wrote ix. 11, 4 (extern.), soon after the 
    death of Sejanus. 
 33 Death of Cassius Severus the orator. His works proscribed. Death of 
    Asinius Gallus. 
 34 Persius born. 
 40 Lucan brought to Rome. 
 41 Seneca's de Ira. Exile of Seneca at the close of this year. 
 42 Asconius Pedianus flourished. 
 43 Martial born. 
 45 Domitius Afer flourished. 
 48 Remmius Palaemon in vogue as a grammarian. 
 49 Seneca recalled from exile, and made Nero's tutor. 
 56 Seneca's de Clementia. 
 57 Probus Berytius a celebrated grammarian. 
 59 Death of Domitius Afer. 
 61 Pliny the younger born (?). 
 62 Death of Persius. Seneca in danger, Burrus being dead. 
 63 The Naturales Quaestiones of Seneca. 
 65 Death of Seneca (Ann. xv. 60). 
 66 Martial comes to Rome. 
 68 Quintilian accompanies Galba to Rome. Silius Italicus consul. 
 69 Silius in Rome. 
 75 The dialogue de Oratoribus, written (C. 17). 
 77 Pliny's Natural History. Gabinianus, the rhetorician, 
    flourished. 
 79 Death of the elder Pliny. 
 80 Pliny the younger begins to plead. 
 88 Suetonius now a young man, Tacitus praetor. 
 89 Quintilian teaches at Rome. His professional career extends over 20 
    years. 
 90 Philosophers banished. Pliny praetor. Sulpiciae Satira (if 
    genuine). 
 95 Statii Silv. iv. 1. The Thebaid was nearly finished. 
 96 Pliny's accusation of Publicius Certus. 
 97 Frontinus curator aquarum. Tacitus consul suffectus. 
 98 Trajan. 
 99 The tenth book of Martial. Silius at Naples. 
100 Pliny and Tacitus accuse Marius Priscus. Pliny's panegyric. 
103 Pliny at his province of Bithynia. 
104 His letter about the Christians. Martial goes to Bilbilis. 
109 Pliny (aet. 48) at the zenith of his fame. 
118 Juvenal wrote Satire xiii. this year. 
132 Salvius Julianus's Perpetual Edict. 
138 Death of Hadrian. 
143 Fronto consul suffectus. 
164 Height of Fronto's fame. 
166 Fronto proposes to describe the Parthian war. 
180 Death of Marcus Aurelius. 

A large number of other dates will be found in the body of the work, especially for the later period; but as they are not absolutely certain, they have not been inserted here.

LIST OF EDITIONS RECOMMENDED. [7]

FOR THE EARLY PERIOD.

WORDSWORTH. Fragments and Specimens of early Latin. 1874. 
LIVIUS ANDRONICUS. H. Duntzer. Berlin. 1835. 
NAEVIUS. Ribbeck. Trag. Lat. Relliquiae, p. 5. 
PLAUTUS. Ritschl or Fleckeisen. Unfinished. 
ENNIUS. Vahlen. Ennianae Poeseos Relliquiae. 
PACUVIUS. Ribbeck, as above. 
TERENCE. Wagner. Cambridge. 1869. Text by Umpfenbach. 1870 
TURPILIUS. Fragments in Bothe (Poet. Scen. V. 2, p. 58-76), and 
Ribbeck's Comic. Lat. Relliq. 
THE EARLY HISTORIANS. Peter (Veterum Historicorum Romanorum 
  Relliquiae.
 Lips. 1870). 
CATO. De Re Rustica. Scriptores rei rusticae veteres Latini, 
  curante
 I. M. Gesnero. Lips. 1735 Vol. 1. 
CATO. Fragmenta praeter libros de Re Rustica. Jordan. Lips. 1860. 
THE OLD ORATORS TO HORTENSIUS. H. Meyer. Oratorum Romanorum Fragmenta. 
  Zurich. 1842. 
ACCIUS. Tragedies. Fragments in Ribbeck, as above. 
——-Praeter Scenica. Lucian Muller. Lucilii Saturaran Relliquiae. 
  Lips. 1872. Lachmann. 
ATTA. Fragments. Bothe. Scen. Lat. v. 2, p. 97-102. Ribbeck. 
AFRANIUS. Bothe, p. 156-9. Ribbeck. 
LUCILIUS. Lucian Muller, as above. 
SUEVIUS. Lucian Muller, as above. 
ATELLANAE. Fr. in Ribbeck. Com. Lat. Rel. p. 192. 
AUCTOR AD HERENNIUM. Kayser. Lips. 1854. 

 

FOR THE GOLDEN AGE. 

VARRO. Saturae Menippeae. Riese. Lips. 1865. 
——-Antiquities. Fragments in R. Merkel. Introduction to Ovid's Fasti. 
——-De Vita Populi Romani. Fragments in Kettner. Halle. 1863. 
——-De Lingua Latina. C. O. Muller. Lips, 1833. 
——-De Re Rustica. Gesner, as above. See Cato. 
CICERO. Speeches. G. Long. London. 1862. In four volumes. 
——-Verrine Orations. Long, as above. Zumpt. Berlin. 1831. 
CICERO. Pro Cluentio. Classen. Bonn. 1831. Ramsay. Clarendon Press. 
——-In Catilinam. Halm. Lips. 
——-Pro Plancio. E. Wunder. 1830. 
——-Pro Murena. Zumpt. Berlin. 1859. 
——-Pro Roscio. Buchner. Lips. 1835. 
——-Pro Sestio. Halm. Lips. 1845. And Teubner edition. 
——-Pro Milone. Orelli. Lips. 1826. School edition by Purton. Cambridge. 
  1873. 
——-Second Philippic, with notes from Halm, by J. E. B. Mayor. 
——-De Inventione. Lindemann. Lips. 1829. 
——-De Oratore. Ellendt. Konigsberg. 1840. 
——-Brutus. Ellendt. 1844. 
——-Philosophical Writings. Orelli. Vol. IV. 
——-De Finibus. Madvig. Copenhagen. Second Edition. 1871. F. G. Otto. 
  1839. 
——-Academica (with De Fin.). Orelli. Zurich. 1827. 
——-Tusculanae Disputationes (with Paradoxa). Orelli. 1829. 
——-De Natura Deorum. Schomann. Berlin. 1850. 
——-De Senectute. Long. London. 1861. 
——-De Amicitia. Nauck. Berlin. 1867. 
——-De Officiis. 0. Heine. Berlin. 1857. 
——-De Republica. Heinrich. Bonn. 1828. 
——-De Legibus. Vahlen. 1871. 
——-De Divinatione. Giese. Lips. 1829. 
——-Select Letters. Watson. Oxford. 
——-Entire Works. Orelli. Zur. 1845. Nobbe. Lips. 1828. 
LABERIUS. Ribbeck. Com. Lot. Relliquiae, p. 237. 
FURIUS BIBACULUS. Weichert. Poet. Lat. Rell., p. 325. 
SYRI. Sententiae. Woelfflin. 1869. 
CAESAR. Speeches. Meyer. Orat. Rom. Fragmenta. 
——-Letters. Nipperdey. Caesar, p. 766-599. 
——-Commentaries. Nipperdey. Lips. 1847-1856. 
——-Gallic War. Long. London. 1859. 
NEPOS. Nipperdey. Lips. 1849. School edition by 0. Browning. 
LUCRETIUS. Munro. Cambridge. 1866. 
SALLUST. All his extant works. Gerlach. Basle. 1828-31. 
VARRO ATACINUS. Fragments in Riese, Sat. Menippeae. 
CHINA. Weichert. Poetarum Lat. Vitae, p. 187. 
CATULLUS. R. Ellis. Oxford. 1867 
——-Commentary. R. Ellis. Oxford. 1876. 
POLLIO. Fragments in Meyer. Orat Rom. Fragmenta. 
VARIUS. Ribbeck's Tragic. Lat. Relliquiae. 
VIRGIL. Ribbeck. 4 vols. With an Appendix Virgiliana. Conington. 3 vols. 
  Oxford. A good school edition by Bryce. (Glasgow University Classics.) 
  London. 
HORACE. Orelli. Third edition, 1850. 2 vols. School editions, by Macleane 
  and Currie, both with good English Notes. Odes and Epodes, by Wickham. 
  1874. 
TIBULLUS and PROPERTIUS. Lachmann. Berlin. 1829. 
TIBULLUS. Dissen. 
PROPERTIUS. Paley. 
OVID. Entire Works. R. Merkel. Lips. 1851. 3 vols. 
——-Fasti. Paley. 
——-Heroides. Terpstra. 1829. Arthur Palmer. Longman. 1874. 
——-Tristia and Ibis. Merkel. 1837. 
——-Metamorphoses. Bach. 1831-6. 2 vols. 
GRATIUS. Haupt. Lips. 1838. Including the Halieuticon, &c. 
MANILIUS. Scaliger. 1579. Bentley. 1739. Jacob. Berlin. 1846. 
LIVY. Drakenborg. 7 vols. Teubner text. Weissenbom, with an excellent 
  German Commentary. 
——-Book I. Professor Seeley. Cambridge. 
JUSTIN (Trogus). Jeep. Lips. 1859. 
VERRIUS FLACCUS. C. O. Muller. Lips. 1839. 
VITRUVIUS. Schneider. Lips. 1807. 3 vols. Rose. 1867. 
SENECA (the elder). Keissling (Teubner series). Oratorum et Rhetorum 
  sententiae divisiones colores. Bursian. 1857. 

 

THE PERIOD OF THE DECLINE. 

GERMANICUS (translation of Aratus). Breysig. Berlin. 1867. 
VELLEIUS. Kritz. Lips. 1840. Halm. 
VALERIUS MAXIMUS. Kempf. Berl. 1854. 
CELSUS. Daremberg. Lips. Teubner. 
PHAEDRUS. Orelli. Zur. 1831. Lucian Muller. 1876. 
SENECA. Tragedies. Peiper and Richter. Lips, 1867. 
——-Entire Works. Fr. Haase. 3 vols. 1862-71. (Teubner.) 
——-Naturales Quaestiones. Koeler. 1818. 
CURTIUS. Zumpt. Brunsw. 1849. 
COLUMELLA. In Gesner, Scriptures Rei Rusticae. 
MELA. Parthey. Berl. 1867. 
VALERIUS PROBUS. In Keil Grammatici Latini. Vol. I. 1857. 
PERSIUS. Jahn. Lips. 1843. Conington. Oxford. 1869. 
LUCAN. C. F. Weber. Lips. 1821. C. H. Weisse. Lips. 1835. 
PETRONIUS. Bucheler. Berl. 1871. Second edition. 
CALPURNIUS. Glaeser. Gottingen. 1842, 
ETNA. Munro. Cambridge. 1867. 
PLINY. Sillig. Lips. 8 vols. 
——-Chrestomathia Pliniana, a useful text-book by Urlichs. Berlin. 1857. 
VALERIUS FLACCUS. Lemaire. Paris. 1824. Schenkl. 1871. 
SILIUS. Ruperti. Gottingen. 1795. 
STATIUS. Silvae. Markland. Lips. 1827. 
——-Entire works. Queck. 1854. 
——-Thebaid and Achilleid. Vol. I. 0. Muller. Lips. 1871. 
MARTIAL. Schneidevin. 1842. 
——-Select Epigrams. Paley. London. 1875. 
QUINTILIAN. Bonnell. (Teubner.) 1861. 
——-Halm. 2 vols. 1869. 
——-Lexicon to, by Bonnell. 1834. 
FRONTINUS. Text by Dederich, in Teubner edition. 1855. 
JUVENAL. Heinrich. Bonn. 1839. Mayor. London. 1872. Vol. I. (for schools). 
    Otto Iahn. 1868. 
TACITUS. Works. Orelli. 1846. Ritter. 1864. 
——-Dialogue. Ritter. Bonn. 1836. 
——-Agricola. Kritz. Berlin. 1865. 
——-Germania. Kritz. Berlin. 1869. Latham. London. 1851. 
——-Annales. Nipperdey. Berlin. 1864. 
PLINY the younger. Keil. Lips. 1870. 
——-Letters. G. E. Gierig. 2 vols. 1800-2. 
——-Letters and Panegyric. Gierig. 1806. 
SUETONIUS. Roth. Teubner. 1858. 
——-Praeter Caesarum Libros. D. Reifferscheid. Lips. 1860. 
FLORUS. Jahn. Lips. 1856. 
FRONTO. Niebuhr. Berl. 1816. Supplement. 1832. S. A. Naber. (Teubner.) 
    1867. 
PERVIGILIUM VENERIS. Bugheler. 1859. Riese's Anthologia Latina i. p. 144. 
GELLIUS. Hertz. Lips. 1853. 
GAIUS. Lachmann. Berlin. 1842. 
——-Institutes. Poste. Oxf. 1871. 
APULEIUS. Hildebrand. Lips. 1842. 2 vols. 
ITINERARIUM ANTONINI AUGUSTI ET HIEROSOLYMITANUM. G. Parthey and M. 
    Finder. Berlin. 1848. 

QUESTIONS OR SUBJECTS FOR ESSAYS SUGGESTED BY THE HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE. [8]

1. Trace the influence of conquest on Roman literature.

2. Examine Niebuhr's hypothesis of an old Roman epos.

3. Compare the Roman conception of law as manifested in an argument of Cicero, with that of the Athenians, as displayed in any of the great Attic orators.

4. Trace the causes of the special devotion to poetry during the Augustan Age.

5. The love of nature in Roman poetry.

6. What were the Collegia poetarum? In what connection are they mentioned?

7. What methods of appraising literary work existed at Rome? Was there anything analogous to our review system? If so, how did it differ at different epochs?

8. Sketch the development of the Mime, and account for its decline.

9. Criticise the merits and defects of the various forms which historical composition assumed at Rome (Hegel, Philos. of History, Preface).

10. “Inveni lateritiam: reliqui marmoream” (Augustus). The material splendour of imperial Rome as affecting literary genius. (Contrast the Speech of Pericles. Thuc. ii. 37, sqq.)

11. Varro dicit Musas Plautino sermone locuturas fuisse, si Latine loqui vellent (Quintil.). Can this encomium be justified? If so, show how.

12. “Cetera quae vacuas tenuissent carmine mentes.” Is the true end of poetry to occupy a vacant hour? Illustrate by the chief Roman poets.

13. The vitality of Greek mythology in Latin and in modern poetry.

14. State succinctly the debt of Roman thought, in all its branches, to Greece.

15. What is the permanent contribution to human progress given by Latin literature?

16. Criticise Mommsen's remark, that the drama is, after all, the form of literature for which the Romans were best adapted.

17. Form some estimate of the historical value of the old annalists.

18. What sources of information were at Livy's command in writing his history? Did he rightly appreciate their relative value?

19. What influence did the old Roman system have in repressing poetical ideas?

20. In what sense is it true that the intellectual progress of a nation is measured by its prose writers?

21. Philosophy and poetry set before themselves the same problem. Illustrate from Roman literature.

22. Account for the notable deficiency in lyric inspiration among Roman poets.

23. Compare the influence on thought and action of the elder and younger Cato.

24. Examine the alleged incapacity of the Romans for speculative thought.

25. Compare or contrast the Italic, the Etruscan, the Greek, and the Vedic religions, as bearing on thought and literature.

26. Compare the circumstances of the diffusion of Greek and Latin beyond the limits within which they were originally spoken.

27. Analyse the various influences under which the poetical vocabulary of Latin was formed.

28. Give the rules of the Latin accent, and show how it has affected Latin Prosody. Is there any reason for thinking that it was once subjected to different rules?

29. “Latin literature lacks originality.” How far is this criticism sound?

30. Examine the influence of the Alexandrine poets upon the literature of the later Republic, and of the Augustan Age.

31. What is the value of Horace as a literary critic?

32. Give a brief sketch of the various Roman writers on agriculture.

33. It has been remarked, that while every great Roman author expresses a hope of literary immortality, few, if any, of the great Greek authors mention it. How far is this difference suggestive of their respective national characters, and of radically distinct conceptions of art?

34 What instances do we find in Latin literature of the novel or romance? When and where did this style of composition first become common?

35. Trace accurately the rhythmical progress of the Latin hexameter, and indicate the principal differences between the rhythm of Lucretius, Virgil, and Horace's epistles.

36. Distinguish between the development and the corruption of a language. Illustrate from Latin literature.

37. “Virgilius amantissimus vetustatis.” Examine in all its bearings the antiquarian enthusiasm of Virgil.

38. “Verum orthographia quoque consuetudini servit, ideoque saepe mutata est” (Quintil.). What principles of spelling (if any), appear to be adopted by the best modern editors?

39. Show that the letter v, in Latin, had sometimes the sound of w, sometimes that of b; that the sounds o u, e i, i u, e q, were frequently interchanged respectively.

40. Examine the traces of a satiric tendency in Roman literature, independent of professed satire.

41. How far did the Augustan poets consciously modify the Greek metres they adopted?

42. Is it a sound criticism to call the Romans a nation of grammarians? Give a short account of the labours of any two of the great Roman grammarians, and estimate their value.

43. Cicero (De Leg. i. 2, 5) says: “Abest historia a literis nostris.” Quintilian (x. i. 101) says: “Historia non cesserit Graecis.” Criticise these statements.

44. “O dimidiate Menander.” By whom said? Of whom said? Criticise.

45. Examine and classify the various uses of the participles in Virgil.

46. What are the chief peculiarities of the style of Tacitus?

47. “Roman history ended where it had begun, in biography.” (Merivale). Account for the predominance of biography in Latin literature.

48. The Greek schools of rhetoric in the Roman period. Examine their influence on the literature of Rome, and on the intellectual progress of the Roman world.

49. In what sense can Ennius rightly be called the father of Latin literature?

50. Can the same rules of quantity be applied to the Latin comedians as to the classical poets?

51. Mention any differences in syntax between Plautus and the Augustan writers.

62. Examine the chief defects of ancient criticism.

53. The value of Cicero's letters from a historical and from a literary point of view.

54. What evidence with regard to Latin pronunciation can be gathered from the writings of Plautus and Terence?

55. Examine the nature of the chief problems involved in the settlement of the text of Lucretius.

56. Compare the Homeric characters as they appear in Virgil with their originals in the Iliad and Odyssey, and with the same as treated by the Greek tragedians.

57. How far is it true that Latin is deficient in abstract terms? What new coinages were made by Cicero?

58. Contrast Latin with Greek (illustrating by any analogies that may occur to you in modern languages) as regards facility of composition. Did Latin vary in this respect at different periods?

59. What are the main differences in Latin between the language and constructions of poetry and those of prose?

60. The use of tmesis, asyndeton, anacoluthon, aposiopesis, hyperbaton, hyperbole, litotes, in Latin oratory and poetry.

61. What traces, are there of systematic division according to a number of lines in the poems of Catullus or any other Latin poet with whom you are familiar? (See Ellis's Catullus).

62. Trace the history of the Atellanae, and account for their being superseded by the Mime.

63. Examine the influence of the other Italian nationalities on Roman literature.

64. Which of the great periods of Greek literature had the most direct or lasting influence upon that of Rome?

65. What has been the influence of Cicero on modern literature (1) as a philosophical and moral teacher; (2) as a stylist?

66. Give some account of the Ciceronianists.

67. What influence did the study of Virgil exercise (1) on later Latin literature; (2) on the Middle Ages; (3) on the poetry of the eighteenth century?

68. Who have been the most successful modern writers of Latin elegiac verse?

69. Distinguish accurately between oratory and rhetoric. Discuss their relative predominance in Roman literature, and compare the latter in this respect with the literatures of England and France.

70. Give a succinct analysis of any speech of Cicero with which you are familiar, and show the principles involved in its construction.

71. Discuss the position and influence of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophies in the last age of the Republic.

72. State what plan and principle Livy lays down for himself in his History. Discuss and illustrate his merits as a historian, showing how far he performs what he promises.

73. Give the political theory of Cicero as stated in his De Republica and De Legibus, and contrast it with either that of Plato, Aristotle, Machiavel, or Sir Thomas More.

74. Analyse the main argument of the De Natura Deorum. Has this treatise a permanent philosophical value?

75. How far did the greatest writers of the Empire understand the conditions under which they lived, and the various forces that acted around them?

76. Examine the importance of the tragedies ascribed to Seneca in the history of European literature. To whom else have they been ascribed?

77. How did the study of Greek literature at Rome affect the vocabulary and syntax of the Latin language?

78. The influence of patronage on literature. Consider chiefly with reference to Rome, but illustrate from other literatures.

79. Are there indications that Horace set before him, as a satirist, the object of superseding Lucilius?

80. Compare the relation of Persius to Horace with that of Lucan to Virgil.

81. Account for the imperfect success of Varro as an etymologist, and illustrate by examples.

82. What is known of Nigidius Figulus, the Sextii, Valerius Soranus, and Apuleius as teachers of philosophic doctrine?

83. Sketch the literary career of the poet Accius.

84 What were the main characteristics of the old Roman oratory? What classical authorities exist for its history?

85. Prove the assertion that jurisprudence was the only form of intellectual activity that Rome from first to last worked out in a thoroughly national manner.

86. Compare the portrait of Tiberius as given by Tacitus, with any of the other great creations of the historic imagination. How far is it to be considered truthful?

87. At what time did abridgments begin to be used at Rome? Account for their popularity throughout the Middle Ages, and mention some of the most important that have come down to us.

88. What remains of the writers on applied science do we possess?

89. Is it probable that the great developments of mathematical and physical science at Alexandria had any general effect upon the popular culture of the Roman world?

90. What are our chief authorities for the old Roman religion?

91. Account for the influence of Fronto, and give a list of his writings.

92. Which are the most important of the public, and which ef the private, orations of Cicero? Give a short account of one of each class, with date, place, and circumstances of delivery. How were such speeches preserved? Had the Romans any system of reporting?

93. A life of Silius Italicus with a short account of his poem.

94. Who, in your opinion, are the nearest modern representatives of Horace, Lucilius, and Juvenal?

95. In what particulars do the alcaic and sapphic metres of Horace differ from their Greek models? What are the different forms of the asclepiad metre in Horace? Have any of the Horatian metres been used by other writers?

96. Enumerate the chief imitations of Ennius in Virgil, noting the alterations where such occur.

97. Point out the main features of the Roman worship. (See index to Merivale's Rome, s. v. Religion.)

98. Write a life of Maecenas, showing his position as chief minister of the Empire, and as the centre of literary society of Rome during the Augustan Age.

99. Donaldson, in his Varronianus, argues that the French rather than the Italian represents the more perfect form of the original Latin. Test this view by a comparison of words in both languages with the Latin forms.

100. Give a summary of the argument in any one of the following works:— Cicero's De Finibus, Tusculan disputations, De Officis, or the first and second books of Lucretius.

101. State the position and influence on thought and letters of the two Scipios, Laelius, and Cato the censor.

102. Give Caesar's account of the religion of the Gauls, and compare it with the locus classicus on the subject in Lucan (I. 447). What were the national deities of the Britons, and to which of the Roman deities were they severally made to correspond?

103. Examine the chief differences between the Ciceronian and Post-Augustan syntax.

104. Trace the influence of the study of comparative philology on Latin scholarship.

105. “Italy remained without national poetry or art” (Mommsen). In what sense can this assertion be justified?

106. What passages can you collect from Virgil, Horace, Tacitus, and Juvenal, showing their beliefs on the great questions of philosophy and religion?

107. Examine the bearings of a highly-developed inflectional system like those of the Greek and Latin languages, upon the theory of prose composition.

108. To what periods of the life of Horace would you refer the composition of the Book of Epodes and the Books of Satires and Epistles? Confirm your view by quotations.

109. What is known of Suevius, Pompeius Trogus, Salvius Julianus, Gaius, and Celsus?

110. Who were the chief writers of encyclopaedias at Rome?

111. How do you account for the short duration of the legitimate drama at Rome?

112. Who were the greatest Latin scholars of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? In what department of scholarship did they mostly labour, and why?

113. Enumerate the chief losses which Latin literature has sustained.

114. Who were the original inhabitants of Italy? Give the main characteristics of the Italic family of languages. To which was it most nearly akin?

115. Illustrate from Juvenal the relations between patron and client.

116. Contrast briefly the life and occupations of an Athenian citizen in the time of Pericles and Plato, with those of a Roman in the age of Cicero and Augustus.

N.B.—Many other questions will be suggested by referring to the Index.