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[Footnote: For a complete record of the work of contemporary authors, consult Who's Who in America.]


ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879), b. Hallowell, Maine. One of America's most voluminous writers on all classes of popular subjects. He wrote one hundred and eighty volumes and aided in the preparation of thirty-one more. Illustrated Histories, The Rollo Books.

ADAMS, HENRY (1838- ), b. Boston, Mass. Historian. History of the United States from 1801 to 1817, that is, under Jefferson's and Madison's administrations. 9 vols. Excellent for this important period.

ALCOTT, LOUISA MAY (1832-1888), b. Germantown, Pa. Daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott. Writer of wholesome, humorous, and interesting stories for young people. Little Women, An Old-Fashioned Girl, Eight Cousins, Rose in Bloom.

ALLSTON, WASHINGTON (1779-1843), b. Waccamaw, S. C. Moved to New England and graduated at Harvard in 1800. Artist; early poet of Wordsworthian school. The Sylphs of the Seasons, and Other Poems .

AMES, FISHER (1758-1808), b. Dedham, Mass. Orator, statesman. Best speech, On the British Treaty (1796).

AUSTIN, JANE G. (1831-1894), b. Worcester, Mass. Novelist of early colonial New England. Standish of Standish, Betty Alden, Dr. Le Baron and his Daughters, A Nameless Nobleman, David Alden's Daughter, and Other Stories of Colonial Times.

BACHELLER, IRVING (1859- ), b. Pierrepont, N. Y. Novelist. Eben Holden, D'ri and I, Darrel of the Blessed Isles.

BANCROFT, GEORGE (1800-1891), b. Worcester, Mass. Historian, diplomatist. History of the United States, from the Discovery of the Continent to the Establishment of the Constitution in 1789, 6 vols. History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States, 2 vols. Covers the period to the inauguration of Washington. The volumes on the Revolutionary War and the formation of the Constitution are the best part of the work. While Bancroft's improved methods of research among original authorities almost entitle him to be called the founder of the new American school of historical writing, yet the best critics do not to-day consider his work scientific. They regard it more as an apotheosis of democracy, written by a man who loved truth intensely, who shirked no drudgery in original investigations, but who shows the strong bias of the days of Andrew Jackson in the tendency to believe that what democracy does is almost necessarily right.

BANGS, JOHN KENDRICK (1862- ), b. Yonkers, N. Y. Humorist. House-Boat on the Styx, The Idiot at Home, A Rebellious Heroine.

BARR, AMELIA E. (1831- ), b. Ulverston, Lancashire, Eng. Anglo-American novelist. A Bow of Orange Ribbon, Jan Vedder's Wife, A Daughter of Fife, and Between Two Loves.

BATES, ARLO (1850- ), b. East Machias, Me. Educator, author. Under the Beech Tree (poems), Talks on the Study of Literature .


BEECHER, HENRY WARD (1813-1887), b. Litchfield, Conn. Congregational clergyman, widely popular as a preacher and lecturer. Delivered noted anti-slavery lectures in England. Some of his published works are Eyes and Ears, Life Thoughts, Star Papers, Yale Lectures on Preaching.


BOKER, GEO. H. (1823-1890), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Dramatist, poet, diplomat. Francesca da Rimini, Dirge for a Soldier.


BROOKS, PHILLIPS (1835-1893), b. Boston, Mass. Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. One of the foremost preachers of his day. Wrote many works on religious subjects, also Essays and Addresses, Letters of Travel.

BROWN, ALICE (1857- ), b. Hampton Falls, N. H. Novelist, The Story of Thyrza, John Winterburn's Family, Country Neighbors, Tiverton Tales, The Mannerings.

BROWNE, CHARLES F. (“Artemus Ward") (1834-1867), b. Waterford, Maine. Newspaper writer and lecturer. Famous humorist of the middle of the nineteenth century. Artemus Ward: His Book,Artemus Ward: His Travels, Artemus Ward in London.

BROWNSON, ORESTES A. (1803-1876), b. Stockbridge, Vt. Clergyman, journalist, Christian socialist. Brownson's Quarterly Review (1844-1875), New Views of Christianity, Society, and the Church.

BUNNER, HENRY CUYLER (1855-1896), b. Oswego, N. Y. Editor of Puck for many years. A clever and successful short-story writer. Short Sixes, Love in Old Cloathes, Zadoc Pine and Other Stories.

BURROUGHS, JOHN (1837- ), b. Roxbury, N. Y. An exact observer of life in the woods and one of the most conservative and entertaining writers on nature. He tells only what he sees and does not draw on his fancy to endow animals with man's power to reason. Some of his nature books are: Wake-Robin, Signs and Seasons, Pepacton, Riverby, Locusts and Wild Honey, Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers. Indoor Studies and Whitman, A Study, show keen critical powers and genuine literary appreciation. Burroughs reminds the reader of Thoreau in closeness of observation and honesty of expression, but Burroughs is less of a philosopher and poet and more of a scientist.

CARY, ALICE (1820-1871) and her sister Phoebe Gary (1824-1871), b. Miami Valley, near Cincinnati, Ohio. Moved to New York, N. Y. Poets. Poems by Alice and Phoebe Cary.

CHAMBERS, ROBERT W. (1865- ), b. Brooklyn, N. Y. Author of exciting romances. The Red Republic, A King and a Few Dukes, The Conspirators.

CHARMING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842), b. Newport, R. I. Great Unitarian preacher and reformer. Spiritual Freedom, Evidences of Christianity and of Revealed Religion, Self-Culture,Slavery.

CHILD, LYDIA MARIA (1802-1880), b. Medford, Mass. Novelist, editor. Hobomok, a story of life in colonial Salem; The Rebels, a tale of the Revolution, introduces James Otis, Governor Hutchinson, and the Boston Massacre; Appeal for that Class of Americans called Africans.

CHURCHILL, WINSTON (1871- ), b. St. Louis, Mo. Home in Cornish, N. H. Novelist. Richard Carvel, The Crisis, and The Crossing are interesting novels of American historical events. Mr. Crewe's Career.

CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN (1810-1888), b. Hanover, N. H. Noted Unitarian clergyman. Orthodoxy: Its Truths and Errors, Ten Great Religions, Self-Culture.

CONE, HELEN GRAY (1859- ), b. New York, N. Y. Poet. Oberon and Puck, The Ride to the Lady, Verses Grave and Gay.

COOKE, ROSE TERRY (1827-1892), b. West Hartford, Conn. Poet and short-story writer. The Two Villages is her best-known poem, and The Deacon's Week one of her best stories.

CRAIGIE, PEARL MARY TERESA (“John Oliver Hobbes") (1867-1906), b. Boston, Mass. Novelist. School for Saints, The Herb Moon, The Flute of Pan, The Tales of John Oliver Hobbes.

CRANCH, CHRISTOPHER PEARSE (1813-1892), b. Alexandria, Va. Educated in Massachusetts. Artist, transcendental poet, and contributor to The Dial. Best poems, Gnosis, I in Thee.

CRANE, STEPHEN (1870-1900), b. Newark, N. J. Novelist. The Red Badge of Courage is a remarkable romance of the American Civil War.

CRAWFORD, FRANCIS MARION (1854-1909), b. Bagni di Lucca, Italy. Voluminous writer of novels and romances. Some are historical, and the scenes of the best of them are laid in Italy. He wrote hisZoroaster and Marzio's Crucifix in both English and French, and received a reward of one thousand francs from the French Academy. Saracinesca , Sant' Ilario, and Don Orsino, a trio of novels about one Roman family, and Katherine Lauderdale and its sequel, The Ralstons, are among his best works.

CURTIS, GEORGE WILLIAM (1824-1892), b. Providence, R. I. Literary and political essayist, civil service reformer, and critic. Was a resident in his youth at Brook Farm. Spent four years of his early life in foreign travel. Nile Notes of a Howadji and The Howadji in Syria are poetic descriptions of his trip. His masterpiece is Prue and I, a prose idyl of simple, contented, humble life. The largest part of his work was done as editor. He was editor of Putnam's Magazine at the time of its failure in 1857, and undertook to pay up every creditor, a task which consumed sixteen years. He wrote the Easy Chairpapers in Harper's Monthly. A volume of these essays contains some of his easiest, most urbane, and humorous writings. They are light and in the vein of Addison's Spectator. In Orations and Addressesare to be found some of his strongest and most polished speeches on moral, historical, and political subjects.

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, SR. (1787-1879), b. Cambridge, Mass. Author, diplomat, judge. Co-editor North American Review when it published Bryant's Thanatopsis. Champion of the romantic school of Wordsworth and Coleridge. Dana's best known poem, The Buccaneer , shows the influence of this school.

DANA, RICHARD HENRY, JR. (1815-1882), b. Cambridge, Mass. Lawyer, statesman, author. His Two Years before the Mast keeps, its place among the best books written for boys during the nineteenth century. The British admiralty officially adopted this book for circulation in the navy.

DAVIS, RICHARD HARDING (1864-1916), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Journalist, playwright, novelist. Best works are short stones of New York life, such as Van Bibber and Others, Gallegher and Other Stories . The Bar Sinister, which holds boys spellbound, is an excellent story of a dog.

DELAND, MARGARETTA WADE (1857- ), b. Allegheny, Pa. Voluminous writer of stories. Old Chester Tales, Dr. Lavendar's People , John Ward, Preacher.

DICKINSON, EMILY (1830-1886), b. Amherst, Mass. Author of unique short lyrics. Poems.

DICKINSON, JOHN (1732-1808), b. Crosia, Md. Statesman. The Farmer's Letters to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies.

DODGE, MARY MAPES (1838-1905), b. New York, N. Y. Editor of Saint Nicholas Magazine. Among her juvenile books may be mentioned Hans Brinker, Donald and Dorothy, The Land of Pluck.

DORR, JULIA C. R. (1825- ), b. Charleston, S. C. Moved to Vermont. Poet, novelist. Poems, In Kings' Houses, Farmingdale .

DWIGHT, JOHN S. (1813-1893), b. Boston, Mass. Musician, transcendentalist. Best poem, Rest, appeared in first number of The Dial.

EGAN, MAURICE FRANCIS (1852- ), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Diplomat, poet, essayist, novelist. Preludes, Songs and Sonnets, Lectures on English Literature, The Ghost of Hamlet.

EVERETT, EDWARD (1794-1865), b. Dorchester, Mass. Orator, statesman. Orations and Speeches.

FIELDS, JAMES T. (1817-1881), b. Portsmouth, N. H. Editor Atlantic Monthly and publisher. Yesterdays with Authors.

FISKE, JOHN (1842-1901), b. Hartford, Conn. Scientist and historian. His histories are both philosophical and interesting. The Critical Period of American History, The Beginnings of New England,The American Revolution, The Discovery of America.

FORD, PAUL LEICESTER (1865-1902), b. Brooklyn, N. Y. Novelist, historian. The Honorable Peter Stirling, Janice Meredith.

FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS (1826-1864), b. Pittsburgh, Pa. Writer of some of the most widely known songs of the nineteenth century. Old Folks at Home (“Down on the Suwanee River"), My Old Kentucky Home, Nellie was a Lady.

FREDERIC, HAROLD (1856-1898), b. Utica, N.Y. Novelist, journalist. The Damnation of Theron Ware, Gloria Mundi.

GILDER, RICHARD WATSON (1844-1909), b. Bordentown, N. J. Editor and poet. Editor of Century Magazine until his death. Poems: The New Day, Five Books of Song, For the Country.

GOODWIN, MAUD WILDER (1856- ), b. Ballston Spa, N. Y. Writer of romances, chiefly historical. The Colonial Cavalier, or Southern Life before the Revolution, Four Roads to Paradise.

GRANT, ROBERT (1852- ), b. Boston, Mass. Novelist, essayist, jurist. Confessions of a Frivolous Girl, An Average Man, The Art of Living.

GREELEY, HORACE (1811-1872), b. Amherst, N. H. Founder and editor of The Tribune, New York, N. Y. Exerted strong influence on the thought of his time. Recollections of a Busy Life.

GREEN, ANNA KATHARINE (Mrs. Charles Rohlfs) (1846- ), b. Brooklyn, N. Y. Voluminous writer of interesting detective stories, of which The Leavenworth Case is the most noted.

GUINEY, LOUISE IMOGEN (1861- ), b. Boston, Mass. Poet, essayist. The White Sail and Other Poems, A Roadside Harp, The Martyr's Idyl and Shorter Poems.

HALE, EDWARD EVERETT (1822-1909), b. Boston, Mass. Unitarian divine, author, philanthropist. Best known story, The Man without a Country . Wrote many miscellaneous essays.

HARDY, ARTHUR S. (1847- ), b. Andover, Mass. Educator, novelist, diplomat. But Yet a Woman, Wind of Destiny, Passe Rose .

HARLAND, HENRY (“Sidney Luska") (1861-1905), b. Petrograd, Russia. Novelist. The Cardinal's Snuff-Box, My Friend Prospero, The Lady Paramount.

HAWTHORNE, JULIAN (1846- ), b. Boston, Mass., son of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Novelist, essayist. Deserves to be called his father's Boswell for the excellent and sympathetic two volumes, entitledNathaniel Hawthorne and his Wife.

HEDGE, FREDERICK H. (1805-1890), b. Cambridge, Mass. Clergyman, transcendentalist. Best poem, Questionings, appeared in The Dial.

HIGGINSON, THOMAS WENTWORTH (1823- ), b. Cambridge, Mass. Unitarian minister, prominent anti-slavery agitator, author. Life of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Cheerful Yesterdays,Contemporaries, Old Cambridge.


HOLLAND, J. G. (1819-1881), b. Belchertown, Mass. Editor of the first series of Scribner's Monthly, wrote several poems, of which Bitter-Sweet was the most popular, and several novels, the best of which is Arthur Bonnicastle.

HOLLEY, MARIETTA (1850- ), b. Ellisburg, N. Y. Humorist, Author of Josiah Allen's Wife, My Opinions and Betsey Bobbet's, Sweet Cicely, Samantha at Saratoga, and Poems.

HOWARD, BLANCHE WILLIS (1847-1898), b. Bangor, Maine. Novelist. Guenn is an unusually strong novel. One Summer, Aunt Serena, and The Open Door are wholesome, pleasing stories.

HOWE, JULIA WARD (1819-1910), b. New York, N. Y. Philanthropist, author of the famous Battle Hymn of the Republic.

HUTCHINSON, THOMAS (1711-1780), b. Boston, Mass. America's greatest historical writer before the nineteenth century. His great work is The History of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

IRELAND, JOHN (1838- ), b. Ireland. Roman Catholic archbishop. The Church and Modern Society.

JANVIER, THOMAS ALLIBONE (1849-1913), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Journalist and author. Color Studies, Stories of Old New Spain, An Embassy to Provence, The Passing of Thomas.

JEWETT, SARAH ORNE (1849-1909), b. South Berwick, Maine. Artistic novelist of old New England villages. Deephaven, The Country of the Pointed Firs, The Tory Lover. She shows a more genial side of New England life than Miss Wilkins gives.

KING, CHARLES (1844- ), b. Albany, N. Y. Soldier, novelist. A War-Time Wooing, The Colonel's Daughter, The Deserter , The General's Double.

KIRK, ELLEN OLNEY (1842- ), b. Southington, Conn. Novelist. Through Winding Ways, A Midsummer Madness, The Story of Margaret Kent, Marcia.

LARCOM, LUCY (1826-1893), b. Beverly Farms, Mass. A factory hand in Lowell, encouraged by Whittier to write. Poems; A New England Girlhood, Outlined from Memory.

LATHROP, GEORGE P. (1851-1898), b. Oahu, Hawaii. Son-in-law of Nathaniel Hawthorne, editor, author. A Study of Hawthorne, Spanish Vistas, Newport.

LAZARUS, EMMA (1849-1887), b. New York, N. Y. Poet, translator, essayist. Admetus, Songs of a Semite, Poems.

LELAND, CHARLES GODFREY (“Hans Breitmann") (1824-1903), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Humorist. Hans Breitmann's Ballads, written in what is known as Pennsylvania Dutch dialect.

LOCKE, DAVID ROSS (“Petroleum V. Nasby") (1833-1888), b. Vestal, N. Y. Political satirist. Nasby Letters.

LODGE, HENRY CABOT (1850- ), b. Boston, Mass. Statesman, historian, essayist. A Short History of the English Colonies in America, Alexander Hamilton, Daniel Webster, Studies in History, Hero Tales from American History (with Theodore Roosevelt).


MABIE, HAMILTON W. (1846-1916), b. Cold Spring, N. Y. Editor, essayist. My Study Fire, William Shakespeare: Poet, Dramatist, and Man, Essays on Books and Culture.

MACKAYE, PERCY WALLACE (1875- ), b. New York, N. Y. Dramatist. Jeanne d'Arc, Sappho and Phaon, The Canterbury Pilgrims , Ticonderoga and Other Poems.

MCMASTER, JOHN BACH (1852- ), b. Brooklyn, N. Y. Historian and professor of American history. A History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War. 7 vols. An entertaining history, sometimes suggestive of Macaulay.



MELVILLE, HERMAN (1819-1891), b. New York, N. Y. Novelist. Typee Omoo, Mardi, White Jacket or the World in a Man of War , Moby Dick or the White Whale contain interesting accounts of his wide travels.

MITCHELL, DONALD GRANT (“Ik Marvel") (1822-1908), b. Norwich, Conn. Essayist. Reveries of a Bachelor, Dream Life.

MITCHELL, S. WEIR (1829- ), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Physician, novelist, and poet. Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker; The Adventures of Francois; Dr. North and his Friends; and Constance Trescot.

MOORE, CLEMENT CLARKE (1779-1863), b. New York, N. Y. Oriental scholar and poet. Known to children to-day for his poem, 'Twas the Night before Christmas.

MOULTON, ELLEN LOUISE CHANDLER (1835-1908), b. Pomfret, Conn. Story writer, poet, correspondent. Some Women's Hearts, Swallow Flights and Other Poems, In Childhood's Country.


ODELL, JONATHAN (1737-1818), b. Newark, N.J. Clergyman, greatest anti-Revolution poetic satirist. Shows influence of Dryden and Pope. The American Congress, The American Times.

O'REILLY, JOHN BOYLE (1844-1890), b. Ireland. Journalist, poet. Songs, Legends and Ballads; Moondyne; Songs from the Southern Seas.


PAULDING, JAMES KIRKE (1779-1860), b. Pleasant Valley, N.Y. Satirical humorist and descriptive writer. The Dutchman's Fireside. Assisted Irving in the Salmagundi papers.

PAYNE, JOHN HOWARD (1792-1852), b. New York, N.Y. Dramatist. Author of the song, Home, Sweet Home.

PEABODY, JOSEPHINE PRESTON (Mrs. Lionel Marks) (1874- ), b. New York, N.Y. Poet, dramatist. The Singing Leaves, Fortune and Men's Eyes, Marlowe, The Piper (Stratford-on-Avon prize drama). Author of excellent poems for children.

PERRY, BLISS (1860- ), b. Williamstown, Mass. Educator, editor, author. Walt Whitman, A Study of Prose Fiction, John Greenleaf Whittier.

READ, THOMAS BUCHANAN (1822-1872), b. Chester Co., Pa. Poet and painter. The New Pastoral, Sheridan's Ride.

REPPLIER, AGNES (1857- ), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Witty essayist. Books and Men, Points of View, Essays in Idleness.


ROE, EDWARD PAYSON (1838-1888), b. New Windsor, N.Y. Clergyman, novelist. Barriers Burned Away, Opening a Chestnut Burr, Nature's Serial Story.


ROOSEVELT, THEODORE (1858-1919), b. New York, N. Y. Ex-President of the United States. Lived for awhile on a western ranch and amassed material for some of his most popular works. Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail, The Winning of the West, The Rough Riders . He has written also on civil, economic, and ethical subjects with great vigor and incisive clearness. His African Game Trails is the record of his trip to Africa.

SANGSTER, MARGARET (1838- ), b. New Rochelle, N. Y. Editor, writer of stories and poems. Poems of the Household, Home Fairies and Heart Flowers.

SAXE, JOHN GODFREY (1816-1887), b. Highgate, Vt. Journalist, writer of humorous verse. Humorous and Satirical Poems, The Money King and Other Poems.

SCHOULER, JAMES (1839- ), b. Arlington, Mass. Lawyer, historian. A History of the United States under the Constitution. 6 vols.

SCOLLARD, CLINTON (1860- ), b. Clinton, N. Y. Educator, poet. With Reed and Lyre, The Hills of Song, Voices and Visions .

SEDGWICK, CATHERINE M. (1789-1867), b. Stockbridge, Mass. Novelist. Her best stories are those of simple New England country life. Redwood, Clarence, A New England Tale.

SHAW, HENRY WHEELER (Josh Billings) (1818-1885), b. Lanesborough, Mass. Humorist. Farmers' Allminax, Every Boddy's Friend, Josh Billings' Spice Box.

SHEA, JOHN DAWSON GILMARY (1824-1892), b. New York, N. Y. Editor, historian. Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley, History of the Catholic Missions among the Indian Tribes of the United States, History of the Catholic Church in the United States, and many other historical and religious studies.

SHERMAN, FRANK DEMPSTER (1860-1916), b. Peekskill, N.Y. Professor of architecture, poet. Madrigals and Catches, Lyrics for a Lute , Lyrics of Joy.

SHILLABER, BENJAMIN P. (“Mrs. Partington") (1814-1890), b. Portsmouth, N. H. Humorist of Mrs. Malaprop's style, mistaking words of similar sounds but dissimilar sense. Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington, Partingtonian Patchwork, Ike and his Friend .

SMITH, SAMUEL F. (1808-1895), b. Boston, Mass. Clergyman. Author of our national poem, America. Of him, Holmes wrote, “Fate tried to conceal him by naming him Smith.”

SPARKS, JARED (1789-1866), b. Willington, Conn. Unitarian minister and historian. Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution , The Writings of George Washington, The Works of Benjamin Franklin.

SPOFFORD, HARRIET PRESCOTT (1835- ), b. Calais, Maine. Novelist, poet. The Amber Gods and Other Stories, New England Legends , Poems.

STEDMAN, EDMUND CLARENCE (1833-1908), b. Hartford, Conn. Poet, critic. One of America's fairest critics. Did valuable work in compiling and criticizing modern English and American literature. A Victorian Anthology, An American Anthology, Victorian Poets, Poets of America. Co-editor of Library of American Literature in eleven large octavo volumes.

STOCKTON, FRANK R. (1834-1902), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Novelist and humorist. His novels have a farcical humor, due to ridiculous situations and absurdities, treated in a mock-serious vein. The Lady or the Tiger? The Late Mrs. Null, The Casting away of Mrs. Leeks and Mrs. Aleshine, The Hundredth Man.

STODDARD, CHARLES WARREN (1843-1909), b. Rochester, N.Y. Author, educator, traveler. South Sea Idyls, Lepers of Molokai, Poems.

STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY (1825-1903), b. Hingham, Mass. Journalist, editor, poet. Songs of Summer, Abraham Lincoln: a Horatian Ode, The Lion's Cub.

STORY, WILLIAM WETMORE (1819-1895), b. Salem, Mass. Sculptor, author. Roba di Roma, or Walks and Talks about Rome, Poems, Conversations in a Studio, Excursions in Art and Letters.

SUMNER, CHAS. (1811-1874), b. Boston, Mass. Noted anti-slavery statesman. His published speeches and orations fill fifteen volumes.

TAYLOR, BAYARD (1825-1878), b. Kennett Square, Chester Co., Pa. Extensive traveler, wrote twelve different volumes of travels, the first being Views Afoot, or Europe Seen with Knapsack and Staff(1846). He wrote also much poetry. Among the best of his shorter poems are The Bedouin Song, Nubia, and The Song of the Camp. Lars: a Pastoral of Norway is his best long poem. The work by which he will probably remain longest known in literature is his excellent translation of Goethe's Faust.

THAXTER, CELIA LAIGHTON (1836-1894), b. Portsmouth, N.H. Spent most of life upon Isles of Shoals. Artist, author. Poems (Appledore Edition, 1896). Best single poem, The Sandpiper.

THOMAS, EDITH MATILDA (1854- ), b. Chatham, Ohio. Poet. A New Year's Masque, A Winter Swallow, and Other Verse, Fair Shadow Land, Lyrics and Sonnets.

TICKNOR, GEORGE (1791-1871), b. Boston, Mass. A History of Spanish Literature.

TORREY, BRADFORD (1843-1912), b. Weymouth, Mass. Nature writer. Birds in the Bush, The Footpath Way, Footing it in Franconia. Editor of Thoreau's Journal.

TOURGEE, ALBION W. (1838-1905), b. Williamsfield, Ohio. Educated in New York. Soldier, judge, novelist of the reconstruction period. A Fool's Errand, Bricks without Straw.

TROWBRIDGE, JOHN TOWNSEND (1827-1916), b. Ogden, N.Y. Editor, novelist, poet, juvenile writer. My Own Story (biography) Among his stories for young people are The Drummer Boy, The Prize Cup, The Tide-Mill Stories. Best known poem, The Vagabonds.

VAN DYKE, HENRY (1852- ), b. Germantown, Pa. Clergyman, professor, essayist, poet. The Builders and Other Poems, Fisherman's Luck and Some Other Uncertain Things, The Story of the Other Wise Man. An interesting, optimistic philosopher, and lover of nature, whose works deserve the widest reading.


WARD, ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS (1844-1911), b. Boston, Mass. Novelist. The Gates Ajar, The Story of Avis, A Singular Life.

WARNER, CHARLES DUDLEY (1829-1900), b. Plainfield, Mass. Traveler, journalist, essayist. Wrote the Editor's Drawer and Editor's Study of Harper's Magazine. My Summer in a Garden andBacklog Studies are delightful for their subtle humor and style. He wrote many entertaining books of travel, such as Saunerings, In the Levant, My Winter on the Nile, Baddeck and that Sort of Thing. He wrote The Gilded Age in collaboration with Mark Twain.

WEBSTER, NOAH (1758-1843), b. Hartford, Conn. Philologist. Published in 1783 his famous Speller, which superseded The New England Primer, and which almost deserves to be called “literature by reason of its admirable fables.” More than sixty million copies of this Speller have been sold.

WESTCOTT, EDWARD NOYES (1847-1898), b. Syracuse, N. Y. Banker, author of one remarkable novel which was published posthumously, David Harum, a story of central New York.

WHARTON, EDITH (1862- ), b. New York, N. Y. Essayist, novelist. Her fiction deals largely with modern society problems. She treats subtle psychological questions with especial skill in the short story.The Valley of Decision, Crucial Instances, The House of Mirth , The Fruit of the Tree, Italian Backgrounds.

WHIPPLE, EDWIN PERCY (1819-1886), b. Gloucester, Mass. Critic, essayist. Essays and Reviews, American Literature and Other Papers, Recollections of Eminent Men.

WHITCHER, FRANCES (“Widow Bedott") (1811-1852), b. Whitestown, N. Y. Humorist. The Widow Bedott Papers.

WHITNEY, ADELINE BUTTON TRAIN (1824-1906), b. Boston, Mass. Poet, novelist, and writer of juvenile stories. Faith Gartney's Girlhood, We Girls, Boys at Chequasset, Summer in Leslie Goldthwaite's Life, Poems.

WIGGIN, KATE DOUGLAS (Mrs. Riggs) (1857- ), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Novelist and writer on kindergarten subjects. Author of The Bird's Christmas Carol, Timothy's Quest, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Penelope's Progress, A Cathedral Courtship. Pathos, humor, and sympathy for the poor, the weak, and the helpless are characteristic qualities of her work. There are few better children's stories than the first two mentioned.

WILLIAMS, ROGER (1604?-1683), b. probably in London. Founder of Rhode Island. The first great preacher of “soul liberty” in America. The Bloody Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience Discussed, The Bloody Tenent yet More Bloody.

WILLIS, N.P. (1806-1867), b. Portland, Maine. Traveler, prose writer, poet, editor. While his work has proved ephemeral, he taught many writers of his day the necessity of artistic finish in their prose. His prose Letters from under a Bridge, and his poems, Parrhasius and Unseen Spirits, may be mentioned.

WINSOR, JUSTIN (1831-1897), b. Boston, Mass. Librarian at Harvard, historian, editor of Narrative and Critical History of America. Author of The Mississippi Basin: the Struggle in America between England and France, 1697-1763; The Westward Movement, 1763-1798 ; Reader's Handbook of the American Revolution, Christopher Columbus.

WINTER, WILLIAM (1836- ), b. Gloucester, Mass. Dramatic editor of the New York Tribune from 1865 to 1909. Edited numbers of plays. Author of Shakespeare's England, Gray Days and Gold,Life and Art of Edwin Booth, Wanderers (poems).

WINTHROP, THEODORE (1828-1861), b. New Haven, Conn. Novelist. His best story, John Brent, contains some of his western experiences.

WISTER, OWEN (1860- ), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Lawyer and novelist. Gives realistic pictures of the middle West. New Swiss Family Robinson, The Dragon of Wantley, Red Men and White, Lin McLean, Lady Baltimore, and The Virginian.

WOODBERRY, GEO. E. (1855- ), b. Beverly, Mass. Educator, author of excellent biographies of Poe, Hawthorne, and Emerson. America in Literature, Poems.

WOOLSON, CONSTANCE FENIMORE (1848-1894), b. Claremont, N. H. Novelist. Best novel, Horace Chase. Some of her other novels are Castle Nowhere, Anne, East Angels, Jupiter Lights, The Old Stone House .


ALSOP, GEORGE (1638-?), b. England. Published in 1666 an entertaining volume, A Character of the Province of Maryland.

AUDUBON, JOHN J. (1780-1851), b. near New Orleans, La. Noted ornithologist and painter of birds. Published Birds of America at one thousand dollars a copy and Ornithological Biography in 5 vols.


BURNETT, FRANCES HODGSON (1849- ), b. Manchester, Eng. Anglo-American novelist. Little Lord Fauntleroy, That Lass o' Lowrie's, Haworth's, A Fair Barbarian, A Lady of Quality.

CALHOUN, JOHN C. (1782-1850), b. Abbeville District, S.C. Statesman, orator. Best work, Disquisition on Government and Discourse on the Constitution and Government of the United States. Best speech, Nullification and the Force Bill (1833).

CLAY, HENRY (1777-1852), b. near Richmond, Va. Orator, statesman. Best speeches: On the War of 1812 (1813), The Seminole War (1819), The American System (1832).

COOKE, JOHN ESTEN (1830-1886), b. Winchester, Va. Colonial and military story writer. Best romance, The Virginia Comedians.

DIXON, THOMAS (1864- ), b. Shelby, N. C. Clergyman, novelist. The Leopard's Spots, The One Woman, The Clansman.


FOX, JOHN JR. (1863- ), b. in Bourbon Co., Kentucky. Novelist of life in the Kentucky mountains. The Kentuckians, A Mountain Europa, A Cumberland Vendetta, The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine.

GAYARRE, CHARLES E. A. (1805-1895), b. New Orleans, La. Jurist, historian. History of Louisiana.

GIBBONS, JAMES (1834- ), b. Baltimore, Md. Roman Catholic cardinal. The Faith of Our Fathers, The Ambassador of Christ.

GLASGOW, ELLEN ANDERSON GHOLSON (1874- ), b. Richmond, Va. Novelist. The Descendant, The Voice of the People, The Deliverance .

GRADY, HENRY W. (1851-1889), b. Athens, Ga. Editor, orator. Best oration, The New South.

HEARN, LAFCADIO (1850-1904), b. in Ionian Islands of Irish and Greek parentage. Journalist, author. Lived many years in New Orleans, went thence to New York, and still later to Japan. Author ofStray Leaves from Strange Literature, Two Years in the French West Indies , Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan, Out of the East. Shows marked descriptive ability.



JOHNSTON, MARY (1870- ), b. Buchanan, Va. Writer of vigorous, well-handled romances of Virginia history. Prisoners of Hope, To Have and to Hold, Audrey, Lewis Rand.

JOHNSTON, RICHARD MALCOLM (1822-1898), b. Hancock Co., Ga. Lawyer, professor of English. Writer of Georgia stories. Dukesborough Tales .

KENNEDY, J. P. (1795-1870), b. Baltimore, Md. Wrote three works of fiction, Swallow Barn, a picture of the manners and customs of Virginia at the end of the eighteenth century, Horse-Shoe Robinson, a Tale of the Tory Ascendency, Rob of the Bowl, a story of colonial Maryland.

KEY, FRANCIS SCOTT (1780-1843), b. Frederick Co., Md. The Star-Spangled Banner.

KING, GRACE E. (1852- ), b. New Orleans, La. Novels of Creole life and historical works on De Soto and New Orleans: Monsieur Motte, Tales of Time and Place, Balcony Stones.

LONGSTREET, AUGUSTUS B. (1790-1870), b. Augusta, Ga. Judge, and (later) a Methodist minister. His Georgia Scenes is one of the liveliest pictures of provincial Georgia life.

MARSHALL, JOHN (1755-1835), b. Germantown, Va. Great Chief Justice of U. S. The Life of George Washington.

MARTIN, GEORGE MADDEN (1866- ), b. Louisville, Ky. Novelist. Emmy Lou—Her Book and Heart.

MATTHEWS, JAMES BRANDER (1852- ), b. New Orleans, La. Lecturer on literature at Columbia College. Critic and story writer. French Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century, Margery's Lovers, A Secret of the Sea and Other Stories, The Story of a Story, The Historical Novel, Study of the Drama, The Short Story.

MULLANY, P. F. (Brother Azarias) (1847-1893), b. Ireland. Educator, essayist. The Development of Old English Thought, Phases of Thought and Criticism.

O'HARA, THEODORE (1820-1867), b. Danville, Ky. Poet. The Bivouac of the Dead.

PECK, SAMUEL MINTURN (1854- ), b. Tuscaloosa, Ala. Poet and novelist. Caps and Bells, Rhymes and Roses.

PIKE, ALBERT (1809-1891), b. Boston, Mass. Moved to Arkansas. Teacher, editor, lawyer. Wrote the popular song, Dixie, and To the Mocking Bird.

PINKNEY, EDWARD COATE (1802-1828), b. London, Eng. Poet. Best lyrics, A Serenade, A Health, Songs, The Indian's Bride.

PORTER, SYDNEY (“O. Henry") (1867-1910), b. Greensboro, N. C. Edited newspapers in Texas. Successful short-story writer. The Four Million, The Heart of the West, The Gentle Grafter, Roads of Destiny, Options, The Voice of the City.

PRENTICE, GEO. D. (1802-1870), b. Preston, Conn. Editor Louisville Journal, poet. Poems. Best poem, The Closing Year.

PRESTON, MARGARET JUNKIN (1825-1897), b. Philadelphia, Pa. Moved to Lexington, Va. Representative woman poet of the Confederacy. Cartoons, For Love's Sake, Colonial Ballads, Sonnets, and Other Verse.

RANDALL, JAMES RYDER (1839-1908), b. Baltimore, Md. Teacher, poet. Maryland, My Maryland (song).


RICE (Alice Hegan) (1870- ), b. Shelbyville, Ky. A widely popular story writer of humble folk, a humorist of rare power, a cheery, breezy philosopher, and a sympathetic interpreter of the simple heart of the brave poor. Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch, Lovey Mary, Captain June, Sandy, Mr. Opp.

RICE, CALE YOUNG (1872- ), b. Dixon, Ky. Author of exquisite lyrics. One of the greatest of the younger poetic dramatists whose plays have acting qualities. Poems: From Dusk to Dusk, With Omar,Song-Surf, Nirvana Days. Plays: Charles di Tocca, David, Yolanda of Cyprus, A Night in Avignon.

RIVES, AMELIE (PRINCESS TROUBETSKOY) (1863- ), b. Richmond, Va. Novelist. The Quick or the Dead, Virginia of Virginia.

RUSSELL, IRWIN (1853-1879), b. Port Gibson, Miss. Caricaturist, musician, poet. He was among the first to see the possibilities of the negro dialect in verse. Poems.

SEAWELL, MOLLY ELLIOT (1860-1916), b. Gloucester Co., Va. Novelist. Little Jarvis (awarded a $500 prize), Sprightly Romance of Marsac (awarded a $3000 prize), Throckmorton.

SMITH, F. HOPKINSON (1838-1915), b. Baltimore, Md. Artist, author, engineer. Colonel Carter of Cartersville is his most enduring work. The Colonel is a remarkable portrait. A Gentleman Vagabond and Some Others, Caleb West: Master Diver, A Day at Laguerre's and Other Days, The Fortunes of Oliver Horn.

STITH, WILLIAM (1689-1755), b. Virginia. Scholarly historian who was so painstaking and detailed in his accounts that he was almost neglected until the present time. History of Virginia from the First Discovery to the Dissolution of the London Company.

STUART, RUTH MCENERY (1856- ), b. in parish of Avoyelles, La. Specially liked for her humorous negro and plantation stories. A Golden Wedding and Other Tales, Sonny, Holly and Pizen .

THOMPSON, WILLIAM TAPPAN (1812-1882), b. Ravenna, Ohio. Georgia journalist and humorist. Major Jones's Courtship.

TIERNAN, FRANCES F. (“Christian Reid") (1846- ), b. Salisbury, N. C. Novelist. Child of Mary, Heart of Steel.


WEEMS, MASON LOCKE (1760-1825), b. Dumfries, Va. Clergyman, biographer. Life of Washington.

WILSON, AUGUSTA EVANS (1835-1909), b. Columbus, Ga. Prolific novelist. Best novel, Saint Elmo.

WILSON, WOODROW (1856- ), b. Staunton, Va. Educator, historian, statesman. A History of the American People.

WIRT, WILLIAM (1772-1834), b. Bladensburg, Md. Lawyer. Life and Character of Patrick Henry, Letters of the British Spy.


ATHERTON, GERTRUDE FRANKLIN (1859- ), b. San Francisco, Calif. Novelist. The Doomswoman, The Aristocrats, The Conqueror.

BALDWIN, JAMES (1841- ), b. Westfield, Ind. Writer of excellent stories for children. The Story of Siegfried, Old Greek Stories', Stories of the King, Discovery of the Old Northwest, The Book Lover.

BIERCE, AMBROSE (1842- ), b. Ohio. For many years a San Francisco journalist. Can Such Things Be? In the Midst of Life (tales of soldiers and civilians).

BURDETTE, ROBERT JONES (1844-1914), b. Greensboro, Pa. Journalist on Burlington (Iowa) Hawkeye and other papers, lecturer, humorist, clergyman. The Rise and Fall of the Moustache,Hawkeyetems , Life of William Penn.

BURNHAM, CLARA LOUISE (1854- ) b. Newton, Mass. Moved to Chicago. Novelist. Dr. Latimer, The Wise Woman.

CARLETON, WILL (1845-1912), b. Hudson, Mich. Poet, editor, lecturer. Farm Ballads, Farm Legends, Farm Festivals, City Ballads. Over the Hills to the Poor House, best known single poem.

CATHERWOOD, MARY HARTWELL (1847-1902), b. Luray, Ohio. Writer of historical tales of Canada and the Northwest. A Woman in Armour, The Lady of Fort St. John, The Romance of Dollard, The White Islander, a Story of Mackinac, Lazarre.

CHENEY, JOHN VANCE (1848- ), b. Groveland, N.Y. Moved to the West. Poet and critic. Thistle-Drift, Wood-Blooms, Queen Helen and Other Poems. Critical Works: That Dome in Air and The Golden Guess.

DUNBAR, PAUL LAURENCE (1872-1906), b. Dayton, Ohio. African descent. Journalist, poet. Wrote many fine lyrics. Oak and Ivy, Lyrics of Lowly Life, Lyrics of the Hearthside.

DUNNE, FINLEY PETER (1867- ), b. Chicago, Ill. Humorist, journalist. Mr. Dooley's Philosophy.

EGGLESTON, EDWARD (1837-1902), b. Vevay, Ind. Novelist of the early life of southern Indiana. The Hoosier Schoolmaster, The Hoosier Schoolboy, Roxy, The Graysons.

FOOTE, MARY HALLOCK (1847- ), b. Milton, N. Y. Her novels give vivid representations of western life. The Led Horse Claim, The Chosen Valley, Coeur d'Alene.

FRENCH, ALICE (“Octave Thanet") (1850- ), b. Andover, Mass. Novelist. Knitters in the Sun, Stories of a Western Town, A Book of True Lovers, The Man of the Hour.

GARLAND, HAMLIN (1860- ), b. West Salem, Wis. Presents graphic pictures of the middle West in such stories as Main-Traveled Roads , Prairie Folks, Rose of Dutcher's Coolly, Boy Life on the Prairie.

HAY, JOHN (1838-1905), b. Salem, Ind. Private secretary to President Lincoln. Lawyer, journalist, diplomatist, and statesman. Pike County Ballads. Joint author with J. G. Nicolay of Abraham Lincoln: A History, 9 vols.

HERRICK, ROBERT (1868- ), b. Cambridge, Mass. Professor (University of Chicago), novelist. The Web of Life, The Common Lot, The Master of the Inn.

HOVEY, RICHARD (1864-1900), b. Normal, Ill. Poet, dramatist. Songs from Vagabondia, The Marriage of Guenevere, Taliesin: A Masque.

JACKSON, HELEN HUNT (1831-1885), b. Amherst, Mass. Novelist, poet. Her great western novel, Ramona, stands in the same relation to the Indian as Uncle Tom's Cabin to the negro. Her Century of Dishonor shows the wrongs done to the Indian race. Poems.

LONDON, JACK (1876-1916), b. San Francisco, Calif. Novelist of adventure. The Call of the Wild, The Children of the Frost , The Sea Wolf, The Game.

LUMMIS, CHARLES F. (1859- ), b. Lynn, Mass. Traveler, librarian, writer. The Spanish Pioneers, The Man Who Married the Moon , The Enchanted Burn.

MCCUTCHEON, GEO. BARR (1866- ), b. Tippecanoe Co., Ind. Novelist. Castle Craneycrow, Brewster's Millions, Beverly of Graustark.

MARKHAM, EDWIN (1852- ), b. Oregon City, Oregon. Poet. The Man with the Hoe and Other Poems.

MILLER, CINCINNATUS HEINE (Joaquin Miller) (1841-1913), b. Wabash District, Ind. Lived in the far West, about which he writes in his poetry. Songs of the Sierras, Songs of the Sunlands, Songs of the Desert.

MOODY, WILLIAM VAUGHAN (1869-1910), b. Spencer, Ind. Poet, dramatist. The Masque of Judgment, The Fire Bringer, The Great Divide (play).

NICHOLSON, MEREDITH (1866- ), b. Crawforusville, Ind. Novelist. The House of a Thousand Candles, The Port of Missing Men, The Hoosiers (in National Studies in American Letters).

NORRIS, FRANK (1870-1902), b. Chicago, Ill. Realistic novel writer. McTeague, The Octopus, The Pit.

PHILLIPS, DAVID GRAHAM (1867-1911), b. Madison, Ind. Novelist. The Social Secretary, The Second Generation, The Fashionable Adventures of Joshua Craig.

PIATT, JOHN JAMES (1835- ), b. James Mills, Ind. Poet. Western Windows, Idyls and Lyrics of the Ohio Valley, Poems of Two Friends (with W. D. Howells).

RHODES, JAMES FORD (1848- ), b. Cleveland, Ohio. Historian. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850, 7 vols. The seventh volume ends with 1877.

SETON, ERNEST THOMPSON (1860- ), b. South Shields, Eng. Painter, naturalist. Wild Animals I Have Known, Lives of the Hunted, Natural History of the Ten Commandments, The Trail of the Sandhill Stag, The Biography of a Grizzly.

SILL, EDWARD ROWLAND (1841-1887), b. Windsor, Conn. Professor in University of California. Transcendental poet. Some fine verse may be found in his volumes, Hermione and Other Poems andThe Hermitage and Later Poems.

SPALDING, JOHN L. (1840- ), b. Lebanon, Ky. Roman Catholic archbishop. Education and the Higher Life, Things of the Mind , Socialism and Labor

TARKINGTON, NEWTON BOOTH (1869- ), b. Indianapolis, Ind. Novelist. The Gentleman from Indiana, Monsieur Beaucaire, The Two Vanrevels, Cherry, The Conquest of Canaan.


THOMPSON, MAURICE (1844-1901), b. Fairfield, Ind. Novelist, naturalist, poet. Best known works, By-Ways and Bird Notes, My Winter Garden, Alice of Old Vincennes.

WALLACE, LEW (1827-1905), b. Brookville, Ind. Lawyer, diplomat, author. Ben Hur, a tale of remarkable power; The Fair God , The Prince of India.

WHITE, STEWART EDWARD (1873- ) b. Grand Rapids, Mich. Writer of vigorous stories of western mountain life. The Blazed Trail, The Silent Places, The Claim Jumpers, The Riverman.

WILCOX, ELLA WHEELER (1855- ), b. Johnstown Center, Wis. Journalist and poet. Poems of Passion, Poems of Pleasure, Poems of Power, Poems of Sentiment.