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Reference

INTRODUCTION.—1. German Literature and its Divisions.—2. The Mythology. —3. The Language.

PERIOD FIRST.—1. Early Literature; Translation of the Bible by Ulphilas; the Hildebrand Lied.—2. The Age of Charlemagne; his Successors; the Ludwig's Lied; Roswitha; the Lombard Cycle.—3. The Suabian Age; the Crusades; the Minnesingers; the Romances of Chivalry; the Heldenbuch; the Nibelungen Lied.—4. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries; the Mastersingers; Satires and Fables; Mysteries and Dramatic Representations; the Mystics; the Universities; the Invention of Printing.

Modern philologists have made different classifications of the various languages of the world, one of which divides them into three great classes: the Monosyllabic, the Agglutinated, and the Inflected.

At the time of the fall of Constantinople, ancient Greek was still the vehicle of literature, and as such it has been preserved to our day. After the political changes of the present century, however, it was felt by the best Greek writers that the old forms were no longer fitted to express modern ideas, and hence it has become transfused with those better adapted to the clear and rapid expression of modern literature, though at the same time the body and substance, as well as the grammar, of the language have been retained.

INTRODUCTION.—1. Spanish Literature and its Divisions.—2. The Language.

PERIOD FIRST.—1. Early National Literature; the Poem of the Cid; Berceo, Alfonso the Wise, Segura; Don Juan Manuel, the Archpriest of Hita, Santob, Ayala.—2. Old Ballads.—3. The Chronicles.—4. Romances of Chivalry.—5. The Drama.—6. Provencal Literature in Spain.—7. The Influence of Italian Literature in Spain.—8. The Cancioneros and Prose Writing.—9. The Inquisition.

1. GERMAN LITERATURE AND ITS DIVISIONS.—Central Europe, from the Adriatic to the Baltic, is occupied by a people who, however politically divided as respects language and race, form but one nation.

1. Chinese literature.—2. The Language.—3. The Writing.—4. The five Classics and four Books.—5. Chinese Religion and Philosophy, Lao-tse, Confucius, Meng-tse or Mencius.—6. Buddhism.—7. Social Constitution of China.—8. Invention of Printing.—9. Science, History, and Geography. Encyclopaedias.—10. Poetry.—11. Dramatic Literature and Fiction.—12. Education in China.

INTRODUCTION.—1. Roman Literature and its Divisions.—2. The Language; Ethnographical Elements of the Latin Language; the Umbrian; Oscan; Etruscan; the Old Roman Tongue; Saturnian Verse; Peculiarities of the Latin Language.—3. The Roman Religion.

1. SPANISH LITERATURE AND ITS DIVISIONS.—At the period of the subversion of the Empire of the West, in the fifth century, Spain was invaded by the Suevi, the Alans, the Vandals, and the Visigoths. The country which had for six centuries been subjected to the dominion of the Romans, and had, adopted the language and arts of its masters, now experienced those changes in manners, opinions, military spirit, and language, which took place in the other provinces of the empire, and which, were, in fact, the origin of the nations which arose on the overthrow of the Roman power.

1. EARLY LITERATURE.—Previous to the introduction of Christianity the Germans had nothing worthy of the name of literature. The first monument that has come down to us is the translation of the Bible into Moeso- Gothic, by Ulphilas, bishop of the Goths (360-388), who thus anticipated the work of Luther by a thousand years.

1. The Language.—2. The Religion.—3. The Literature. Influence of Women.—4. History.—5. The Drama and Poetry.—6. Geography. Newspapers. Novels. Medical Science.—7. Position of Woman.

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