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Reference

1. GREEK LITERATURE AND ITS DIVISIONS.—The literary histories thus far sketched, with the exception of the Hebrew, occupy a subordinate position, and constitute but a small part of the general and continuous history of literature.

INTRODUCTION.—1. French Literature and its Divisions.—2. The Language.

PERIOD FIRST.—1. The Troubadours.—2. The Trouveres French Literature in the Fifteenth Century.—4. The Mysteries and Moralities: Charles of Orleans, Villon, Ville-Hardouin, Joinville, Froissart, Philippe de Commines.

Rey, Bielski, Copernicus, Czartoryski, Niemcewicz, Mickiewicz, and others.

1. THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.—Of all the nations which have sprung into existence through the medium of European colonization, since the discovery of America, the United States is the only one having a literature of its own creation, and containing original works of a high order. Its earliest productions, however, are of little value; they belong not to a period of literary leisure, but to one of trial and danger, when the colonist was forced to contend with a savage enemy, a rude soil, and all the privations of pioneer life.

The following works are the sources from which this book is wholly or chiefly derived:—

1. ANTE-HOMERIC SONGS AND BARDS.—Many centuries must have elapsed before the poetical language of the Greeks could have attained the splendor, copiousness, and fluency found in the poems of Homer. The first outpourings of poetical enthusiasm were, doubtless, songs describing, in few and simple verses, events which powerfully affected the feelings of the hearers. It is probable that the earliest were those that referred to the seasons and their phenomena, and that they were sung by the peasants at their corn and wine harvests, and had their origin in times of ancient rural simplicity.

1. FRENCH LITERATURE AND ITS DIVISIONS.—Towards the middle of the fifth century the Franks commenced their invasions of Gaul, which ended in the conquest of the country, and the establishment of the French monarchy under Clovis. The period from Clovis to Charlemagne (487-768) is the most obscure of the Dark Ages. The principal writers, whose names have been preserved, are St. Remy, the archbishop of Rheims (d. 535), distinguished for his eloquence, and Gregory of Tours (d.

1. STATESMEN AND POLITICAL WRITERS.—Among the causes which rapidly developed literature and eloquence in the colonies, the most important were the oppressions of the mother country, at first silently endured, then met with murmurs of dissatisfaction, and finally with manful and boldly-expressed opposition.

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