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Anne C. Lynch Botta

1. ENGLISH LITERATURE AND ITS DIVISIONS.—The original inhabitants of England, belonging to the great race of Celts, were not the true founders of the English nation; and their language, which is still spoken unchanged in various parts of the kingdom, has exerted but an incredibly small influence on the English tongue. During the period of the Roman domination (55 B.C.-447 A.D.), the relations between the conquerors and the natives did not materially alter the nationality of the people, nor did the Latin language permanently displace or modify the native tongue.

1. European Literature in the Dark Ages.—2. The Arabian language.—3. Arabian Mythology and the Koran.—4. Historical Development of Arabian Literature.—5. Grammar and Rhetoric.—6. Poetry.—7. The Arabian Tales.— 8. History and Science.—9. Education.

1. EUROPEAN LITERATURE IN THE DARK AGES.—The literature, arts, and sciences of the Arabs formed the connecting link between the civilizations of ancient and modern times. To them we owe the revival of learning in Western Europe, and many of the inventions and useful arts perfected by later nations.

1. The Finnish Language and Literature: Poetry; the Kalevala; Loennrot; Korhonen.—2. The Hungarian Language and Literature: the Age of Stephen I.; Influence of the House of Anjou; of the Reformation; of the House of Austria; Kossuth; Josika; Eoetvoes; Kuthy; Szigligeti; Petoefi.

1. CELTIC LITERATURE.—During this period four languages were used for literary communication in the British Islands; two Celtic tongues spoken by nations of that race, who still occupied large portions of the country; Latin, as elsewhere the organ of the church and of learning; and Anglo- Saxon. The first of the Celtic tongues, the Erse or Gaelic, was common only to the Celts of Ireland and Scotland, where it is still spoken. The second, that of the Cymrians or ancient Britons, has been preserved by the Welsh.

The Language.—Influence of the Literature In the Eighth and Ninth Century.

INTRODUCTION.—1. Italian Literature and its Divisions.—2. The Dialects. —3. The Italian Language.

PERIOD FIRST.—1. Latin Influence.—2. Early Italian Poetry and Prose.—3. Dante.—4. Petrarch.—5. Boccaccio and other Prose Writers.—6. First Decline of Italian Literature.

The Slavic Race and Languages; the Eastern and Western Stems; the Alphabets; the Old or Church Slavic Language; St. Cyril's Bible; the Pravda Russkaya; the Annals of Nestor.

1. LITERATURE IN THE LATIN TONGUE.—The Norman Conquest introduced into England a foreign race of kings and barons, with their military vassals, and churchmen, who followed the conqueror and his successors. The generation succeeding the Conquest gave birth to little that was remarkable, but the twelfth century was particularly distinguished for its classical scholarship, and Norman-French poetry began to find English imitators.

1. The Persian language and its Divisions.—2. Zendic Literature; The Zendavesta.—3. Pehlvi and Parsee Literatures.—4. The Ancient Religion of Persia; Zoroaster.—5. Modern Literature.—6. The Sufis.—7. Persian Poetry.—8. Persian Poets; Ferdasi; Essedi of Tus; Togray, etc.—9. History and Philosophy.—10. Education in Persia.

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